Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

malaimo
Posts: 14
Joined: Mon Sep 25, 2017 6:28 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby malaimo » Mon Jan 22, 2018 1:20 am

ESP_Angus wrote:As WiFive says, using flash encryption & secure boot together provides local physical firmware security. To protect data in transit over the network, you need additional steps.

To prevent OTA updates being downloaded by unauthorised parties, I'd recommend using HTTPS and some kind of authentication method based on a private key or other secret stored in the client ESP32 - either TLS Client Certificate auth, or some kind of secret device ID which is not broadcast but stored encrypted in the ESP32 flash.

The ESP32 identifies itself to the server over HTTPS, and then the sends provides the .bin image using TLS to encrypt the data transfer.
Thanks for your detailed answer , I understand that completely Now. :mrgreen: :mrgreen:

marbalon
Posts: 5
Joined: Wed Dec 20, 2017 11:02 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby marbalon » Mon Jan 22, 2018 3:20 pm

Hi,
I read this post and information about flash encryption and secure boot but still I'm not sure what is the best way in my scenario. I tried to create ESP32 based device of course. But after selling product I want to allow users upgrade firmware, so of course I should use OTA feature. But I also wan't to allow user to upgrade firmware using UART or web interface without connection to Internet, but providing firmware file on the website.

So what is the best solution? I'm thinking that the best way is sue Secure Boot + Flash encryption but with fixed keys for all devices and then provide pre-signed binaries on the website. But if I understand correctly I need to modify OTA procedures to use write procedures without encryption. The problem I found is that pre-signed images need to know what is the fixed address in flash and for OTA this address can be different for both partitions?

So maybe I need to use another key used for firmware file encryption (can I store another key in efuse?) and then decrypt firmware on the fly and burn to flash and this will encrypt data again but using build in keys.

Is there any simple but good solution to provide users offline firmware, but be sure that firmware can run only on my devices ?

ESP_Angus
Posts: 1318
Joined: Sun May 08, 2016 4:11 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby ESP_Angus » Thu Jan 25, 2018 5:48 am

Hi marbalon,

We haven't really talked about local UART updates in flash encryption + secure boot model, but it's possible:

- One possibility (as you've mentioned) is to store the pregenerated keys for each device (you can use the same key for all devices, but we don't recommend this as you have "all your keys in one basket"). Then distribute pre-encrypted signed app .bin files and a pre-encrypted otadata partition. By flashing both these at once via the standard esptool.py, the otadata partition will set the ESP32 to boot from the just-flashed OTA app partition.

- The other possibility is to build an OTA mechanism that use your own serial protocol or some other local access protocol. The OTA framework ("app_update" API) in ESP-IDF is protocol-agnostic, it assumes you get a stream of bytes (from somewhere) and then pass it to the app_update API. The assumption is that this will be some kind of network protocol, but you could just as easily implement something like ZMODEM over serial (to error correct the data in flight) and push that stream of data into the app_update API.

Or if you have something like an SD card slot, you can have users copy a file onto the SD and then load it from there, etc, etc.

marbalon
Posts: 5
Joined: Wed Dec 20, 2017 11:02 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby marbalon » Thu Feb 01, 2018 8:53 pm

Thanks for your answer. I finally made what I want to do ;-)

But I have also two questions:

1. If I wan't to protect only firmware binary, flash encryption is enough with this efuse settings ?

Code: Select all

FLASH_CRYPT_CNT        Flash encryption mode counter                     = 1 R/W (0x1)
FLASH_CRYPT_CONFIG     Flash encryption config (key tweak bits)          = 15 R/W (0xf)
CONSOLE_DEBUG_DISABLE  Disable ROM BASIC interpreter fallback            = 1 R/W (0x1)
JTAG_DISABLE           Disable JTAG                                      = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_ENCRYPT     Disable flash encryption in UART bootloader       = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_DECRYPT     Disable flash decryption in UART bootloader       = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_CACHE       Disable flash cache in UART bootloader            = 1 R/W (0x1)
BLK1                   Flash encryption key                              
  = 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 -/-
2. And what is ABS_DONE_1 because I can't find detailed desctiption of this bit.

BR,
Marcin.

ESP_Angus
Posts: 1318
Joined: Sun May 08, 2016 4:11 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby ESP_Angus » Fri Feb 02, 2018 2:00 am

marbalon wrote: 1. If I wan't to protect only firmware binary, flash encryption is enough with this efuse settings ?

Code: Select all

FLASH_CRYPT_CNT        Flash encryption mode counter                     = 1 R/W (0x1)
FLASH_CRYPT_CONFIG     Flash encryption config (key tweak bits)          = 15 R/W (0xf)
CONSOLE_DEBUG_DISABLE  Disable ROM BASIC interpreter fallback            = 1 R/W (0x1)
JTAG_DISABLE           Disable JTAG                                      = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_ENCRYPT     Disable flash encryption in UART bootloader       = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_DECRYPT     Disable flash decryption in UART bootloader       = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_CACHE       Disable flash cache in UART bootloader            = 1 R/W (0x1)
BLK1                   Flash encryption key                              
  = 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 -/-
Yes, this is sufficient to protect against firmware readout (without an attacker finding some software vulnerability).
marbalon wrote: 2. And what is ABS_DONE_1 because I can't find detailed desctiption of this bit.
This efuse is not currently used.

Yuriy Bohdanovsky
Posts: 9
Joined: Thu Apr 12, 2018 7:03 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby Yuriy Bohdanovsky » Thu Apr 12, 2018 7:18 am

Hi
I have a small question about rewriting the bootloader.
So I use the pregenerated key, I quietly encrypt and rewrite the firmware.
But I can not re-write the bootloader, even in encrypted form.
Why can not I overwrite the bootloader with an encrypted file?

ESP_Angus
Posts: 1318
Joined: Sun May 08, 2016 4:11 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby ESP_Angus » Fri Apr 13, 2018 2:19 am

Yuriy Bohdanovsky wrote:Hi
I have a small question about rewriting the bootloader.
So I use the pregenerated key, I quietly encrypt and rewrite the firmware.
But I can not re-write the bootloader, even in encrypted form.
Why can not I overwrite the bootloader with an encrypted file?
If you don't have secure boot enabled, you can encrypt the bootloader with your known key and replace it.

If you do have secure boot enabled, you can't do this - the bootloader is read-only once secure boot is enabled. This is to prevent a software exploit on the device (software can write encrypted data) from replacing code in order to persist the exploit.

Yuriy Bohdanovsky
Posts: 9
Joined: Thu Apr 12, 2018 7:03 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby Yuriy Bohdanovsky » Fri Apr 13, 2018 5:32 pm

Hi
I'm using the setting

Code: Select all

sdkconfig
CONFIG_SECURE_BOOT_ENABLED=
CONFIG_FLASH_ENCRYPTION_ENABLED=y
CONFIG_FLASH_ENCRYPTION_INSECURE=
I write the firmware and bootloader, in the terminal I see how the bootloader encrypts the memory.
Next, I overwrite the firmware file and the table file in encrypted form.
Everything is working.
To encrypt the bootloader file, I use the command

Code: Select all

$python /home/osboxes/esp/esp-idf/components/esptool_py/esptool/espsecure.py encrypt_flash_data --keyfile  my_flash_encryption_key.bin   --address 0x1000 -o bootloader-encrypted.bin bootloader.bin
When I write a bootloader with an encrypted file
I get a brick.

Code: Select all

rst:0x10 (RTCWDT_RTC_RESET),boot:0x13 (SPI_FAST_FLASH_BOOT)
flash read err, 1000
ets_main.c 371 
ets Jun  8 2016 00:22:57
what's my mistake?
thank you for your help

Yuriy Bohdanovsky
Posts: 9
Joined: Thu Apr 12, 2018 7:03 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby Yuriy Bohdanovsky » Sun Apr 15, 2018 12:11 pm

My security fuses

Code: Select all

Security fuses:
FLASH_CRYPT_CNT        Flash encryption mode counter                     = 1 R/W (0x1)
FLASH_CRYPT_CONFIG     Flash encryption config (key tweak bits)          = 15 R/W (0xf)
CONSOLE_DEBUG_DISABLE  Disable ROM BASIC interpreter fallback            = 1 R/W (0x1)
ABS_DONE_0             secure boot enabled for bootloader                = 0 R/W (0x0)
ABS_DONE_1             secure boot abstract 1 locked                     = 0 R/W (0x0)
JTAG_DISABLE           Disable JTAG                                      = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_ENCRYPT     Disable flash encryption in UART bootloader       = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_DECRYPT     Disable flash decryption in UART bootloader       = 1 R/W (0x1)
DISABLE_DL_CACHE       Disable flash cache in UART bootloader            = 1 R/W (0x1)
BLK1                   Flash encryption key                              
  = 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 -/- 
BLK2                   Secure boot key                                   
  = 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 R/W 
BLK3                   Variable Block 3                                  
  = 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 R/W 

Efuse fuses:
WR_DIS                 Efuse write disable mask                          = 128 R/W (0x80)
RD_DIS                 Efuse read disablemask                            = 1 R/W (0x1)
CODING_SCHEME          Efuse variable block length scheme                = 0 R/W (0x0)
KEY_STATUS             Usage of efuse block 3 (reserved)                 = 0 R/W (0x0)

Config fuses:
XPD_SDIO_FORCE         Ignore MTDI pin (GPIO12) for VDD_SDIO on reset    = 0 R/W (0x0)
XPD_SDIO_REG           If XPD_SDIO_FORCE, enable VDD_SDIO reg on reset   = 0 R/W (0x0)
XPD_SDIO_TIEH          If XPD_SDIO_FORCE & XPD_SDIO_REG, 1=3.3V 0=1.8V   = 0 R/W (0x0)
SPI_PAD_CONFIG_CLK     Override SD_CLK pad (GPIO6/SPICLK)                = 0 R/W (0x0)
SPI_PAD_CONFIG_Q       Override SD_DATA_0 pad (GPIO7/SPIQ)               = 0 R/W (0x0)
SPI_PAD_CONFIG_D       Override SD_DATA_1 pad (GPIO8/SPID)               = 0 R/W (0x0)
SPI_PAD_CONFIG_HD      Override SD_DATA_2 pad (GPIO9/SPIHD)              = 0 R/W (0x0)
SPI_PAD_CONFIG_CS0     Override SD_CMD pad (GPIO11/SPICS0)               = 0 R/W (0x0)
DISABLE_SDIO_HOST      Disable SDIO host                                 = 0 R/W (0x0)

Identity fuses:
MAC                    MAC Address                                       
  = 30:ae:a4:7b:c7:14 (CRC d3 OK) R/W 
CHIP_VERSION           Chip version                                      = 8 -/W (0x8)
CHIP_PACKAGE           Chip package identifier                           = 0 -/W (0x0)

Flash voltage (VDD_SDIO) determined by GPIO12 on reset (High for 1.8V, Low/NC for 3.3V).

ESP_Angus
Posts: 1318
Joined: Sun May 08, 2016 4:11 am

Re: Questions regarding flash encryption and Secure Boot

Postby ESP_Angus » Mon Apr 16, 2018 12:14 am

Yuriy Bohdanovsky wrote: I write the firmware and bootloader, in the terminal I see how the bootloader encrypts the memory.
Next, I overwrite the firmware file and the table file in encrypted form.
Everything is working.
To encrypt the bootloader file, I use the command

Code: Select all

$python /home/osboxes/esp/esp-idf/components/esptool_py/esptool/espsecure.py encrypt_flash_data --keyfile  my_flash_encryption_key.bin   --address 0x1000 -o bootloader-encrypted.bin bootloader.bin
When I write a bootloader with an encrypted file
This all looks correct. Did you use the same my_flash_encryption_key.bin for the app firmware & partition table when you overwrote those? Was this key written into the ESP32 with espefuse.py before the first boot?

Are you sure you flashed bootloader-encrypted.bin not bootloder.bin? Can you post the full esptool.py command lines you used each time?

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